About 18 months ago I had a really cool idea: What if we could communicate with people who are high on LSD in such a way that sober people can’t understand?* I call this idea psychedelic cryptography (PsyCrypto for short).
The GIFs above do just that: The left one is the “original” and it shows how you perceive it while sober. The GIF on the right shows what it’s like to see the GIF on the left after taking 100 micrograms of LSD. Notice anything different?
The first thing to note is that it is easier to see what letter is hidden here (C). On a closer inspection, you can also notice another amazing fact: It turns out that there are gaps between the vertical columns! This feature pops-up with clarity and is self-evident on the right GIF, and yet one needs to carefully observe the left GIF to notice that this is happening. That piece of information is not obvious when you are sober. Hence, while a sober person may infer what the hidden letter is, only a person on a psychedelic will see right away that there are gaps between the columns. Can you think of how to use this as a communication tool?
The approach shown above is only one of a plethora of ways of communicating with people on psychedelics. Here I will mention just a couple low-hanging fruits, give a few ideas for how to extend psychophysical research to build animations in a principled way, and discuss an awesome speculative application of this research.
Hopefully this article will spark interest and motivate both the psychedelic replication and the psychophysics community to come up with more innovative communication methods.
Do psychedelics enhance performance?
Drug “education” emphasizes the functional, perceptual, cognitive and affective impairments caused by the acute and chronic use of psychedelic substances. Psychedelics impair reaction time, linear thought, verbal expression, and a large range of everyday activities. This much is clear. It is undeniable that not all tasks are suitable for psychedelic experiences: Filing taxes, giving lectures to large audiences, and passing the polygraph test may all be rather poor choices for psychedelic activities.
But impairment is not the whole story. It is obvious to anyone who has researched the matter that psychedelics have some peculiar mind-enhancing properties. Any decent scientific account of psychedelic states has to provide information about the ways in which this particular state of consciousness confers genuine advantages.
And a great scientific account will explain why these particular trade-offs exist, and how we can best use them to (1) understand the mind, (2) achieve our human potential, and (3) address mental illness in a meaningful way.
Harman & Fadiman found a very large performance enhancement in the Witkins Embedded Figures test upon the administration of 100µg of LSD or 200mg of Mescaline. That is one of the most remarkable results of their study, which of course is not to diminish the relevance of their results concerning the rate of outstanding scientific discoveries. Unfortunately, the absence of drug-free controls in that study makes it less useful for convincing skeptics. When the study is replicated, it would be ideal to make it double-blind and not only include drug-free placebo controls, but also use an active performance-enhancing placebo, such as amphetamine.
Likewise, it is now clear that the self-insight concerning difficult emotional subjects can be radically amplified during therapeutic psychedelic sessions. How and why this happens is still a rather difficult mystery.
Finally, we are currently experiencing a memetic explosion with regards to the use of micro-doses. Although we don’t yet have formal double-blind placebo-controlled research on the benefits of micro-dosing LSD, the wealth of anecdotal evidence is too large to ignore. For LSD, a micro-dose is defined as a dose in the 10-20 microgram range. The awesome Gwern is, to my knowledge, one of the few biohackers to have run a placebo-controlled experiment on himself. Although he found no positive effects, I suspect that is largely due to the sort of activities that he cares about. A more noticeable enhancement would be observed on artists, writers and possibly mathematicians. It is genuinely exciting that there is a new wave of attention to this particular application of psychedelics: General, all-purpose life-enhancement.
A Fantastic Speculative Application
If psychedelic states of consciousness provide some sort of information-processing advantage over sober states, this advantage may be possible to exploit for secret communication. Conversely, if there is any information-delivery method that only people on psychedelics can understand, it follows that psychedelic states have distinct information-processing advantages over sober states. From a purely PR point of view, obtaining a portfolio of methods to secretly transmit information to high-people will do a lot of beneficial work in showing the potential benefits of psychedelics. This is partly what motivates my research.
Even more awesome is the idea that this technology can lead to the creation of a video-game that only people on psychedelics can understand and play. For a sober person the game would look like an incomprehensible bundle of dots, edges, colors, sounds, etc. But a person sufficiently zonked would perceive crystal-clear images and easy-to-infer objectives. Only a sufficient amount of LSD would allow you to score a single point in this game.
Low Hanging Fruit
The simplest method is to take advantage of the longer-lasting after-images experienced under the influence. This happens to be one of the most robust effects that psychedelics have, and there seems to be a very clear dose-dependent curve in the intensity of these lingering phosphenes. Neurologically, this is explained by the Control Interrupt Model of Psychedelic Action, which can be summarized as follows: Our cortex’s main role is to provide inhibitory control on thalamic activity. The serotonergic activity of psychedelics blocks this control signal, and thus prevents the swift extinction of qualia once the triggering stimuli (whether internal or external) is removed.**
The basic idea for using tracers to communicate information is to provide, little-by-little, pieces of information that can be assembled into a coherent whole only if you use lingering after-images as building blocks.
Psychophysics for Psychedelic Research: Afterimages/Tracers
In order to find the right parameters to make awesome visualizations that can only be interpreted during psychedelic experiences, we will need to do a lot of trial-and-error, and ideally, build quality psychophysical tools. The following are some of the most important questions that we need to answer before we can go wild and build the psychedelic video-game:
- What is the dose-dependent decay function of tracers’ brightness?
- What is the additive function? Do similar colors average out? Do opposite colors cancel out?
- What is the range of features that remain in one’s experiential field? Is this dose-dependent?
- Do lingering features interact with one another? Do they achieve after-the-fact local phenomenal binding?
- What is the role of synesthesia in tracers?
To elaborate a little: The first question is about the rate of decay of phosphenes as a function of the dose and the time since the presentation of the stimuli. The GIF at the top of this page assumes an exponential gamma-corrected decay function.
The second question goes a little deeper, and it inquires about the way in which successive after-images of simple features (such as color and brightness) interact. If you first show a red square followed by a yellow one, do you then experience two overlapping but unblended colors? Or do you experience the average of the two (a hue of orange)? (If you know the answer from first-hand experience, please comment below!)
According to abundant anecdotal evidence (erowid, PsychonautWiki, r/psychonaut, etc.) the kind of perceptual objects that linger in one’s experiential field is dose-dependent. On small doses only colors and edges linger, while on higher doses you may experience emotions, faces, abstract concepts and even ontological qualia for many more seconds than normal. But what is the precise equation that describes this?
The fourth question is getting into more serious and difficult-to-research territory. Namely, we would want to know how different features interact with one another once they are lingering in one’s experiential field. If you first look at the blue sky and then look at a white cube, do you perceive a blue cube? More stunningly: If you think about the concept of recursion and then look at a tree, do you see recursion in the tree? (anecdotally, this definitely happens). The amazing thing about this particular question is that it may get at the very reason why consciousness was recruited by natural selection for information-processing purposes: There are some qualia that can be locally bound and some that can’t. This determines the range of constraints with which our mind implements constraint satisfaction solvers. But that’s a story for another post.
Finally, studying synesthesia during psychedelic experiences will almost certainly require the combination of neuro-imaging (such as fMRI) and quality psychophysics. I will explore this question further at a later time.
Answering the Questions
In order to answer most of the above questions, we can use the following paradigm: In order to test a theory you will want to (1) create interesting animations that produce particular effects, (2) create simulations of how these animations should look like under psychedelic vision, and (3) ask participants to rate the degree of similarity between the actual and predicted experiences.
For example, the GIFs below illustrate how an image might be seen if after-images are additive in nature. In other words, if you do experience orange when you flash red and yellow in quick succession, we can predict that the image on the left would be seen as the image on the right while on LSD. Is this so? I don’t know! Let me know if you happen to try it out.
Answering these questions using this and other paradigms will be very valuable to neuroscience.***
Textures (Once Again)
In Psychophysics for Psychedelic Research: Textures we discussed how we can use psychophysical tools and computational models in order to measure deficits and enhancements in our visual pattern recognition ability while under the influence of LSD. This is done by measuring the size of the Just Noticeable Differences (JND) for each of the summary statistics our visual system can recognize in peripheral vision. I have yet to collect real data from people under the influence, but thankfully the paradigm is already fleshed out. (Dear psychophysical researcher reading this blog, please feel free to use this approach!). Presumably both textures and after-images can be used to encode information that only high people can read.
A proof of concept for how to do this would be to encode information in binary code: Take a set of summary statistics that high people are good at distinguishing (and sober people confuse). Then show pairs of textures, one on the left and one on the right, so that the texture on the right has either the same or different summary statistics as the one on the left. If the textures are different then that encodes a 0. And if they are the same, that encodes a 1. Make sure that this particular summary statistic difference is only noticeable by people on psychedelics and you will have a state-dependent visual binary encryption!
Since you can communicate anything using a binary sequence, you can use this to provide any information you may want. But will your zonked friends be able to string together 1024 1s and 0s in order to decode a verbal message? Unlikely.
As the sole way of communicating information, textures are an unlikely candidate. But they may fit well as a component of a complex array of stimuli. If we can answer questions (3) and (4) we may be able to flash textures in sequence in such a way that their summary statistics are combined. While a pair of textures may not provide a lot of information, a sequence of them may overlap in such a way that high-level features begin to appear.
Hence, maybe we can build a sequence of textures that will make a person on LSD experience a particular face, or a dog. The sober person will remain clueless, though, since the consecutive textures fail to become integrated into a coherent percept.
According to Shulgin there was a study conducted in the 60s that showed that people on psilocybin can read a text with fewer letters. What does this mean? Take a random text like a children’s story. Then remove X% of letters from it at random (substituting them by an underscore to show that a letter is missing).
Every person has a comprehension threshold: A 55-percenter would only be able to read texts that have 55% or more of their letters remaining. If that person takes psilocybin, then the comprehension threshold may drop to, say, 44%. This test should be particularly easy to replicate since it does not require any sort of image processing. Would you be interested in building an online test that determines your comprehension threshold? If you do, make sure to ask “are you on a psychedelic currently?” and collect the data!
Perhaps this generalizes to other areas of verbal comprehension. For instance, can you understand spoken words with more syllables taken out? What about sign language?
These are just a few promising approaches. I am confident that by opening this idea up to the broader academic and psychedelic community a lot more ideas will blossom. If you were inspired by this article to build your own psychophysical toolkit, make sure to let me know in the comments below. And remember: I’m always looking for collaborators. 🙂
* LSD here is a shorthand for psychedelics in general.
** Control Interrupt Model of Psychedelic Action: In his awesome book called Psychedelic Information Theory, James Kent argues that the visual and cognitive components of psychedelic experiences can be explained as the effect of subtle disruptions to the inhibitory control cycle of perception. He calls this theory the Control Interrupt Model of Psychedelic Action. The basic idea is that in order for our experience of the world to be linear and stable there must be mechanisms in place that regulate the overall loop of consciousness. In other words, when we open our eyes, the image in out visual field does not become arbitrarily brighter over time. Nor is it the case that our visual field gets as bright as it can if you give it enough time. Rather, we have in place a negative feedback mechanism involving lateral inhibition and inhibitory projections from the cortex to the thalamus that regulates the brightness of our experience.
This inhibitory control mechanism occurs a discrete number of times per second. Therefore “control interruption” caused by psychedelics, in this model, is conceived as a periodical failure of inhibitory control that allows aspects of one’s experience to be sustained for longer than usual. The frequency of control interruption is specific to the psychedelic used. As the article conjures, salvia and nitrous oxide produce control interruption at a frequency of 8-11 and 12-15 Hz, respectively. On the other hand, DMT disrupts control at a much higher frequency (24-30+ Hz). This control interrupt creates “a standing hallucinogenic interference pattern in the consciousness of the subject”.
*** As argued by Julien Dubois and Rufin VanRullen in “Visual Trails: Do the Doors of Perception Open Periodically?” tracers may be very significant when it comes to reverse-engineering the human visual system. How many frames per second do we experience? How long do the images last in the visual field? Does this effect generalize to high-level features, or is it specific to colors and edges? Thus, building psychedelic communication tools would be of great value to neuroscience.
Great blog and article; I would love to find ways to collaborate with your experiments, I have some theories we can discuss, and I can build a focus group for future experiments. I know this blog is from some years ago, but I would love to know if you are still active in this field, looking to continue research
Yes – check out: https://qualiacomputing.com/2020/10/09/modeling-psychedelic-tracers-with-qris-psychophysics-toolkit-the-tracer-replication-tool/
You can use the tool to build psycrypto effects 🙂
As someone with Hppd, i have constant after-images,I would be very interested in collaborating in this project.
Thank you! You can submit a datapoint using our tool now! See: https://qualiacomputing.com/2020/10/09/modeling-psychedelic-tracers-with-qris-psychophysics-toolkit-the-tracer-replication-tool/
It shouldn’t take more than a few minutes to learn to use the tool. Let me know if you have any questions! 😀
Reblogged this on Patterns In Exformation.
If you are reading this, and you are the one who wrote the article, please contact me.
Tbh i just want to see if this works
I was doing patent research and somehow imaged searched down to this site, which i find fascinating.
On the animated file at the top of the page, what I’d think to try is a pixel color decay, where a image is turned into a X level dithered halftone, say 8 levels ranging from white to black. The gif/program would animate, black screen, darkest gray pixels (in full white), dark gray (again blinked full white), gray, light gray and white, where the dots would all flash 100% white on a black screen and gray level would appear as decay over time. Without a blend, the image would just be noise.
So much like the first animation shows a sweeping motion, the sweeping motion would move to a 3rd dimension and the image grayscale/dithered b&w.
If something like above works, then “equivalence” could be brought in, where rather rather than just flashing 100% white, a light pixel could be flashed twice as a gray, to equal one as a white. Or white could be blinked as multiple 25% or flashed once white, then refreshed in the cycle with grays.
Equivalence could allow the observer to tune the image to their perception in order to quantify the effect. A control person should be able to tune an equivalence, then have a test person also tune to equivalence. Frame rate, frame count, dot distribution could all be tuned.
Admittedly, I skimmed through this b.s. because it very quickly became apparent it is an intellectualized attempt to portend understanding of psychedelic experiences to the extent they can be controlled in accordance with subjectively interpreted data. You might as well try to give an absolute definition to the experience of love. The only aspect of the article that has any credence is where it coincides with subliminal suggestion techniques used in video and audio recording developed in the early 20th century on general populates that may or may not have had been under the influence of any kind of mind altering substances. For the most part all research data compiled in those regards show that any give subject had a proclivity for the action desired by the creator of the hidden message. There again final analysis was based on subjectively interpreted data.
Bottom line is that pschydelic experiences and others like love can not accurately be defined or measured. Let those under the influence experience what they will and stick your analytical nose in your own dark recesses and keep your results to yourself.
Well you’re no fun. Actually, we’ve had some success in describing the phenomenology of psychedelic experience by collaborating and evaluating shared experiences. It’s like reverse engineering the brain’s circuits by jamming spanners in the works.
The after images are absolutely best defined as additive color schemes. I think this has more to do with the physiology of the visual system – the awareness of it is all that changes after taking psychedelics. The RGB scheme is established with rod and cone cells that the visual cortex processes into a coherent image, but like with rgb pixels on televisions, if you pay attention even while sober you can see the phantoms of processing as separate colors. The after images i see while on psychedelics are also identical to the ones i see both sober today, and sober as a child. They’re just more pronounced. Also, if you haven’t heard of the mask experiment with psychedelics and schizophrenia, check that out. Another example of perceptual advantages from psychedelics.
The effect of additive colouring and other tracer phenomenon can be approximated in a sober state by stereoscopic images. Display two frames in a horizontal line, then cross the eyes to overlap the images. With some practise you can find the correct distance that the central merged image comes into focus.
Hello! I think you are getting onto something pretty important here. However, there have been some experiments conducted since this article was published. I have been fortunate to receive emails from people interested in helping with this project. I emailed them gifs that contain particular colors displayed in quick successions and I asked them to see whether they could blend the colors in their “after-image space.” It turns out that the particular cross-color additive function is quite more complicated than how stereoscopic images interact. I don’t yet have enough data (and iterations!) to derive a formula for this additive function, but by the looks of the responses I’ve received so far the additive function for tracers takes place in the CIELAB color space rather than in the (trivial) RGB or cone-receptor addition space, as stereoscopic images seem to work. This is super puzzling, but also encouraging. It reinforces my suspicion that the state-space of phenomenal color is an actual field (in the mathematical sense) but only when you use the CIELAB scale (which is a linear map of possible colors based on Just Noticeable Differences rather than photon-counting different frequencies of light).
Thanks for the contribution, regardless 🙂
I haven’t seen it mentioned elsewhere so I’ll mention it here: while a real cool idea, the potential for abuse also exists. Imagine, if you will disturbing messages that only people who are high on LSD could read. Messages that the world is going to end, etc. To everyone else, they would just look like streaks of light, but to the person who is completely high, it could be enough to give them a bad trip.
Not at all pleasant to think about, but worth bringing up, and hopefully the ideas put forth in this article will be used in a responsible manner.
Absolutely. I can only imagine how freaked out a novice to psychedelic states who just took 300 micrograms of acid would feel if he read in a light display: “You are the Chosen One, the One who will deliver the message. A message of hope for those who choose to hear it and a warning for those who do not.”
I dont even understand how this can be beneficial. I thought that there were positive uses for LSD and other Psychedelics, and sometimes there are, I believe, when it’s involving personal issues and after the trip is over, and the person that had the trip, can look back and say “that helped”. But, the benefits are not going to be widespread, the benefits do not outweigh the possibility of damage, and they aren’t certain, Nothing is certain with Psychedelics.
What you need to realise, is that it’s not about being a novice to LSD, it’s about your subjects lives and those whom you influence. While you may have some idea of the persons mind frame, at the time, that is willing to do the experiment, there are too many risks taken when promoting LSD use. While on LSD the smallest things can distort that persons “trip” things that you can not control, and things that can permanently damage that persons life There are no positive outcomes, the tests can’t be repeated or controlled. In your mind this may seem like a wonderful idea, but just understand the possibility of the extreme danger this may have on anyone involved.
You’re really going out on a limb here, buddy.
That’s silly, people on LSD can communicate just fine without tricks!
Not sure if you didn’t read the article, or if your comment is a joke 🙂
You should go to symbiosis gathering sometime. People are WAY ahead of you on this.
Do you have any links for videos, images, design documents, etc. for awesome art that can only be understood under the influence of a psychedelic?
I am aware of several Burning Man installations that specifically cater to psychedelic states. But as far as I know, no one has taken the trouble to actually answer the questions I’m posing in the article (1-5). For that you will probably need quality psychophysics (of the sort only psychophysicists like Bala, Simoncelli, Wandell, etc. make for vision research at places like Stanford, Berkeley, NYU, etc.).
The article is meant to inspire a dialogue and collaboration between visual artists (of the Burning Man kind) and computational psychologists/psychophysics hobbyists. What I often find lacking in the first group is an impetus to formalize the discoveries so that other’s can take advantage of them. And the latter group is generally uninterested in altered states of consciousness :/
We need more people who can simultaneously use computational models and get high responsibly to obtain the best estimates of the signal processing properties of psychedelic consciousness. I’m afraid that this is a rather small cluster currently. Hopefully we can begin to grow it 🙂
Go to a MAPS conference sometime, you might find people interested in the same things 🙂 Also, have you read up on Kluver’s form constants?
Oh, also, Dr. David Presti at UC Berkeley might be a fun person to talk with.
Really awesome read, Thank you!
Well, this guys art can only be understood by those who have taken psychedelics. I think it comes pretty close – https://gfycat.com/@stingrayz
Unfortunately, all the testing and experimentation you’re suggest was already performed in the 90s, by ravers. …on very large projection screens using fairly sizable testing groups.
Where are the equations, though? 🙂
Unfortunately any formally documented research will probably have to wait until the drugs are legalized
Too bad the author didn’t point out that with each usage of LSD the visual hallucinations are much reduced until soon there are almost none. I have a theory. The drug takes up position in a receptor that is normally used in dreaming – and stays. After a period of multiple LSD trips, visual dreaming is almost non-existent. In high school, the unconscious visual triggers that would register minor dress code changes would be less likely to be dreamed about and registered in consciousness. For anyone with an artistic bent, using LSD therefore would be a mistake.
um… no. i’ve used LSD for the last 20 years and good LSD still give me amazing visuals. you have no idea what you are talking about. LSD taking every two weeks should result in the same strength.
algekalipso – These articles are wonderfully interesting. I’m definitely intrigued by the idea of a psychophysical toolkit. I’m a web developer, graphic designer, UXer and artist and would love to learn to create works of art that can “speak” differently to people based on their state of consciousness.
Excellent 🙂 I will (sometime in the next few months) upload my current home-made psychophysics toolkit to github so that readers of my blog can play with it and come up with better ways of encoding information that can only be deciphered in psychedelic states. But why wait? The task I talked about regarding text with missing letters should be straightforward to implement and run in the interwebs. I’m happy to talk to you via Skype to craft a plan. I personally think that we should just go ahead and collect data, and then write the results in quality blogposts. There is no need to publish them yet, and we can think about these trials as “pilots.” This side-steps the tremendously cumbersome process of obtaining IRB approval for psychedelic studies (believe me, I tried to do so while being a grad student in the Stanford Psychology department).
The Monkey and The Crocodile
Once upon a time, a clever monkey li_ed in a tree that bore juicy, red rose apples. He was very happy. One fine day, a crocodile swam up to th_t _ree and told the monkey that he had traveled a long distance and was in search of food as _e was very hungry. The kind mo_key off_re_ _im a _ew rose apple_. The crocodile en_oyed them very much and asked the monkey whether he could com_ again for some more fruit. The gene_ous monkey happily agreed.
The crocodile ret_rned the nex_ day. And the _ext. And the next one after t_a_. Soon the two beca_e ver_ good friends. __ey discussed their lives, their friends and family, like all friends d_. _he crocodile t_ld the m_nkey that he had a wife and that _hey _ived on the other _ide of the _iver. S_ the _ind mon_ey o_fe__d him some ex_ra rose app_es to take home to his wife. The crocod_le’s wife loved the r_se apples a_d made her husba_d p_omise to _et her so_e every day.
Meanwhile, the f_iends_ip be_we_n t_e mo_key and the crocodil_ deepened _s _hey spent mo_e and more _i_e t_gether. The crocodile’s wife start_d get_ing jealou_. She wante_ to _ut a_ end to this friendship. So she prete_de_ _hat she could _ot believe tha_ her hu_ba_d _o_ld be friends with _ _onkey. Her h_sban_ trie_ to c_nvi_c_ her _hat h_ and t_e m_n_ey sha_ed _ tru_ fr_endship. The cro__di_e’s wife _hought to her_elf that if _he __nkey lived _n a diet of rose mon_eys, his _lesh would be ve_y sweet. _o _he asked t_e c_oc__i_e _o _nvite _he m_nkey to the_r house.
The croc_d_le was not hap__ abo_t _h_s. He trie_ to make the excuse _h_t _t would be diffic___ to get the m_nkey _cross the river. But h_s wife was d_termine_ to eat the monkey_s flesh. So she thought of a pla_. On_ day, she pretend__ to b_ v_ry ill an_ told the cr_codile that the doc_or said that _he _oul_ o_ly re_over if s_e ate _ monkey_s _ea_t. If h__ h___and wanted t_ save _er life, he must bring her his friend’s heart.
The c_oc_dile was ag_ast. H_ w_s i_ _ dilemma. O_ th_ _ne hand, h_ l_ved his friend. O_ the othe_, he c_uld not p_ss_bly let _is wife die. The c___odi_e’_ wi__ th_eatene_ h_m sa_i__ t__t if he _i_ not g_t _e_ _he monke__’_s hear_, _he w_ul_ sure__ __e.
So the c_ocodile __nt _o t_e rose apple tree and _nvited the m_nk__ to come home to meet his _ife. __ __ld t_e m_n_e_ that _e co_ld r___ __ross _h_ r__er on t__ c_ocod__e’s bac_. Th_ mo__ey _ap_ily agre__. As they re__h_d th_ middle of _he river, the __o__dil_ began t_ sink. The frigh_e_ed _onk_y asked hi_ ___ he was doin_ t_at. The cr_codile explai_e_ t_at he _o__d h_ve to k___ __e monk__ _o sa_e h__ w_fe__s l_fe. _he cleve_ m_n_ey _old h_m that he would gl__ly give up _is h__r_ to s_v_ the l__e of t_e crocod_le’s _if_, but _e ha_ le_t his ___rt _ehind in _h_ ro_e _p__e _ree. __ _ske_ t__ _ro__d_le t_ ___e h_s_e ___ tu_n _ac_ __ _ha_ _he monkey __uld _o get his h_ar_ from t_e _pp__ tre_.
Th_ si_ly cr__odi__ _uic___ sw_m ba_k to the r_se _pp__ tree. Th_ _onkey s__mpe_ed _p th_ tree to _af_ty. _e told _h_ _roc_di__ to t_l_ _i_ _ic_ed wife th_t she ha_ m__ri_d the _igge__ f__l __ the _orl_.
_h_ __ar _nd Th_ _wo Fr_e_d_
O__e _w_ f__en_s _ere walki_g __ro_g_ _h_ _orest. The_ kne_ that _n_t_in_ _ang_ro_s c_n __ppe_ _o the_ _t _n_ _ime _n th_ fo_est. S_ the_ pro_ised _ac_ oth_r th__ ____ w_u_d r___in un__ed in an_ _as_ o_ d_nge_.
S_______, t_e_ _aw a large be__ ap_ro__h_ng th_m. One of t_e f_i____ _t __c_ __imb_d a n_arby _r_e. Bu_ __e oth_r o__ ___ n__ kn__ h__ to __i__. So _e__g __d __ h__ co_m__ sen_e, __ ___ d__n on __e gro___ brea______, _reten__ng t_ __ _ _e_d ma_.
_h_ ____ came n___ ___ _an _____ __ ___ __ound. _t s___t i_ h_s e_rs, an_ s____y _e__ _he p_ace. Bec_us_ th_ __a_s __ n_t _o__h ___ de_d _r_ature_. No_ th_ f___nd _n _he __ee _ame _o__ _nd __k__ _is _rie__ on _h_ g_____, ____r_en_, __a_ _i_ t_e ____ __ll y__ into y__r ea_s?___ ___ _th_r f_ie__ repl_ed, __The __a_ __v_s__ me n__ _o b__i_ve _ fals_ f___n_.__
__e _i_k__ B_rber___s P_i_h_ __“ Akbar & _ir_al
__ _e a__ k___, _i_b_l was n_t o_l_ _mp___r A_b___’_ fav__i_e m_ni___r b_t also _ __ni_t_r d_ar_y lo__d by most __ _h_ _om__ner_, b_c____ _f hi_ _e_dy _it and _____m. _eople __ed __ ___e to _im _r_m _ar and wi_e _or __vi__ on _ers___l mat____ t__. H_w___r, th__e _as a __o_p o_ ___ist__s _h__ _ere j__lo__ _f h_s gro__n_ pop_lari_y _n_ d_sl__e_ _im _n_en___y. ____ o____rd__ s_o____d him w_th __a___ __d _om_l__e_ts, _u_ _n _h_ ___i__ ___y b__a_ __ __t_h a _l_t __ ki_l him.
_ne ___ _he_ a_p_o_____ _h_ _______s __r__r w_th _ p___. _s t__ _____r was _xt___e__ clo_e t_ the _in_, t_e_ ____d ___ t_ _elp ____ g_t ___ o_ __rb_l pe____e_tly. A_d of cours_, _he_ pr_m_s__ ___ a h___ su_ __ m____ in ______. ___ wi___d __r_e_ rea____ a___e_.
__e ____ ___e t__ _in_ _______d his _____ces, ___ _ar__r _ta__ed a ____ers__ion abo__ the _m_ero_â_™_ __t_er w__ __ a_s_ ____ __ __r__. He s_n_ p_a_s__ _f __s fi__, ______s_oo__ ____. An_ ___n as a_ a_terth__g__ _e ___e_ ___ k_ng _h__ as h_ __s _n__y___ ___h _r__t ___s___it_, __d h_ m__e an ______t __ do a_yth__g _or _he w__far_ _f _is anc__t___?
_h_ _i__ ___ _ur____ _t ___h i_pe_t__e_t __u______ ___ ____ _h_ ba___r t_a_ i_ __s ___ ________ __ do an___in_ be_a___ t__y _e__ a__ea__ __ad. ___ b____r _enti__e_ _h__ __ k___ o_ a m____i__ __o _ou_d c___ __ __l_. T__ _____i_n __u__ ____ a p_____ _p __ h_a___ to _n_uir_ _bou_ ___ _a_h_r___s _elf_re. __t of co___e th__ __r__n wo___ ____ __ b_ ______ __r______; __ w____ _av_ __ __ _n_el_____t _n_u__ __ __l_o_ t_e ________s _nst____i_ns __ _e__ __ m__e _n__h______ _eci____s. _e ____ __ wi__, __t_ll_g___ an_ r__p__s__l_. Th_ ______ _h__ ____e__e_ __e __s_ p_____ ___ ___ j__ â__ __e ___e_t of a__ _____ters, ______.
___ k___ w_s __r_ _x_i___ ab___ _e__i__ ____ h_s de_d f____r __d _s___ t_e ______ __ __ ah___ ___ ____ t_e _r__n____n__ ___e_______. __ a__e_ _i_ ____ _a_ _e____ t_ b_ d_n_. __e _a___r expl___e_ t__t t__y ___l_ ___e _____l __ a p___e_si__ _o _he b__i__ ___un__ ___ ___h_ _ py__. T_e ____c__n _____ ____ __a_t __m_ __ma___a____ __ _ir___ w___d ____n_ t_ ___ h___e__ _______ ___ sm__e. T__ _ha__i__ ____d _e_p _____c_ _i_b__ _rom t__ ____.
___ ____ ___pil_ _n____e_ _i_ba_ _f ___s p___. ____a_ ___d _h__ _e __o__h_ i_ a ___ll____ ____ ___ ____e_ t_ __ow __e ____n __h_nd __. _h__ _e_r___g _ha_ __ w__ __e _____r____ _d_a, __ ______ __ go __ _ea___ o_ _o_______ ____ _e __ g____ _ _a___ __m_ _f ___e_ _o_ ___ _o__ _______ __ w__l __ o_e ___th_’s _i_e __ __tt__ h__ ___i__ __ t__t t___ h_d _o ____b__ w____ __ ___ go__. ___ k___ a_____ t_ ____ c_n_i___n_.
__ ___ __r__i__ __ t__s __nt_, __ g__ _ ___ _r_________ me_ __ _u__d _ _u___l f___ _h_ _u_____ __o____ __ ___ ____e. ___ __ t_e d__ __ th_ ___e_s___, ___e_ ___ ___e _ad __e_ l__, B_____ ___ape_ t___u__ ___ _______e_ __or o_ _h_ ____e_. H_ ___________ __ t_ ___ _____ _h___ _e _i_ ___ _ ___ __n_hs ____e _i_ ____ _n_ _____ ___w ___g ___ _nr___.
In __e ________ __s e______ __r_ r_______g __ ____ _______ __a_ ____ ___ _e__ ___ ___t of __r___. __e_ _ne _a_ _f___ _a__, ____ mon___ __r_a_ _____e_ __ _h_ _a___e ____ ____ __ ___ k_______ ______. ___ ____ ___ ____e____ __e_s_d __ ___ h_m ___ _e___ _i__ _ ____a__ __ _________. ______ ____ _h_ ____ ____ ___ f_____ _a_ __ ___ _e__ __ __i____ a__ ___ b_e_ ________ __th _l_ ___ ________ ______ ___.
___ k_n_ ______ __ ___w __a_ ___ ___k___ _______ ___ __ t_o__ht __ ___ _____ a _a_ __ ____ __in__ ___ _____e __ __a__n. ___b__ a__w____ ____ _____ ____ _o ____e__ __ ______, _____ __ ___ ____ __ ___ ______ __ ____ ___ ___ ___rd. __ ____ ____ ___ __th__ ___ _____ ___ _ _o__ ______.
__ ___ ____ _______ __ ____ ___ ___ _a____ __ _____ ___ ______ __ h__v__. __ ______ ____ ___ ______ ___ ___ ________ t_ __e____ __ _e__ ___ __ ______. ___ _a____ ____d sa_ __________ _______ __ __s ___ _______ __ __ _a_ ______ __ ___ o__ ____. ___ ____ ___ ____ ___ ___ __ d___ __ ___ ____.
______ _____ __ c_______ ___i___ ______ ____n.
__e ___ ___ ___ G_____
___ _________ _ __x ___ ______g _______ _h_ ______ ___ _______ _ _u___ __ ______ _______ ____ ____ a _____ __a___.
â______ ___ _____ __ _u___h _y ______,__ __ __o____. ______ _ ___ _____ ____, t__ ___ j_____ ___ ____ ______ ___ _______ ______. _____ ___ ___ ____ _ ___ _____ ____ ___ _____ __ _____ ____ ___ _____ ______.
_______, ______ __, ___ ___ ______ __ ___ ____ ___ ____, ____________ ________ ____ ______,___ ___ _________ __ ____ ____.
vathnedhfsjerutnhtmyThoTootlsrokkfretlionnrgmrhtehneatrtmoetsdpnndtntsncuamuddonetehokraeicoltstmookfrSshrodltitoioipyutidtaiultoaieds flesh. So she thought of a plan. One day, she pretended to be very il and told the crocodile that the doctor said that she would only recover if she ate a monkeys heart. If her husband wanted to save her life, he must bring her his friends heart.\nThe crocdile was aghast. He was in adilemma. On the one hand, he loved his friend. On the other, he could not possibly let his wife die. The crocodiles wife threatend him saying that if he did not get her the monkeys heart, shewould surely die.\nSo thecrocodile went to therose apple tre andivited hemonkey to come home to meet hiswfe. H told themonkey that e could rie across therive on thecrocodiles back. Themonkey happily agreed. As they rachd themiddle of therive, thecrocodile began to sink. Thefrightened monkey asked himwhyhe wasdoing that. Thecrocodile explained that he would have to kill themonkey to save hiswifes life.The clevr monkey told him that he wouldgladly give up his heartto save the life of the crocodiles wif,but he had left his heartbehind in the rose appltree.He askedthe crocodile to make hastand turn back so that the monky couldgo get his heartfrom the appltree.\nTh sillycrocodile quckly swam back to the rose appltree.Th monkey scampered up the tree to safety. He told the crocodile to tell his wicked wif that she had married the biggst fool in the world.”